壯族百鳥衣故事
Legend of the Hundred Birds Costume of the Zhuang Nationality

所屬名錄: 第四批國家級名錄

編號: I-147

申報地區或單位: 廣西壯族自治區橫縣

Inscribed list: National List, Fourth Batch

Inventory no.: I-147

Nominating unit(s): Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Heng County

壯族居於中國南部,尤其於廣西壯族自治區,並有著豐富的當地歷史及文化。其中一個最有名的傳説是百鳥衣故事。

傳說中,在一個壯族村落,有一個名為張亞原的窮困青年,他與母親相依為命,為土司工作及打柴為生。一天,他在柴木上看到一隻雞在扁𥘵上休息,於是把它帶回家,於是就把它帶回家照顧。半年後,那隻雞受到他的善意化成一位漂亮的姑娘。他們亦結下姻緣。

得知張有一位完美妻子,土司妒忌他並想把其妻據為己有。雖然他多次對夫妻兩施以詭計,但每次都被嬌妻化險為。直到一天,他决定強行帶走美妻。這時,女孩吩附張把百鳥射下後把它們製成衣服,再過百天後穿著它並到土司的衙門前。看著家庭被拆散和滿懷救妻希望,張踏上旅程開始任務。另一邊廂在衙門裡,那女孩已經不再微笑了。士司嘗試以銀幣打動她,但她不為所動。

張攀過99座山峰和越過99條河流後,成功射下百鳥並製成一條百鳥衣。然後他到土司那邊,妻子看到他後,臉上的愁容亦瞬間化為笑容。土司為了得到百鳥衣和嬴取美人心,以土司袍得到百鳥衣。張則利用幫他穿衣機會,把他捅死。最後,張與其妻離開衙門,並快樂地渡過餘生。

此傳說的起源可能為了反映對封建制的不滿,並可能在元到清朝時土司制在中國西南部以少數民族部落頭目管理時產生。因缺少文字紀錄,這傳説只能靠口頭相傳及詩人韋其麟於1950及1960年代的收隻工作,以及他於1955年根據傳説寫成的詩。

百鳥衣故事亦被改編成其他類型的表演藝術,包括壯戲及一個在2018首演的雜技表演。

The Zhuang nationality lives in southern China, mostly in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, and has a rich local history and culture. One of the more well-known legends among the Zhuang people is that of the Hundred Birds Costume.   

 

As the story goes, in the Zhuang village, there was a poor teenager named Zhang Yayuan (), who lived with his mother and made a living through working for the Tusi, or chieftan() chopping wood on the hills. One day, he came across a chicken resting on the pile of chopped woods, so he decided to bring her home and take care of her. The chicken magically transformed into a lovely lady after Zhang took care of her with kindness for a half year. Later, they married each other and became a happy couple.

 

Learning of Zhang’s wonderful wife, the Chieftain became jealous and desired the wife for himself. Although he tried to fool the couple numerous times, he was still outsmarted by the lady at each turn. Until one day, the Chieftain decided to forcefully seize the lady. At that moment, the wife was able to direct Zhang to shoot a hundred birds down and make it into a costume, and after a hundred days to wear it and find her at the Chieftain’s office”. Thus, with a broken family and hopes of rescuing his wife, Zhang proceeded on the task. Meanwhile, back at the Chieftain’s home, the lady had lost her smile and was depressed. To win her heart, the Chieftain attempted to impress her with silver coins, but was unsuccessful.

 

After climbing 99 mountains and crossing 99 rivers, Zhang achieved in his task of shooting a hundred birds to make the hundred birds costume. He traveled to the Chieftain’s location. When his wife saw him, her gloomy countenance immediately changed and she was full of smiles. The chieftain desired the costume, and in order to please the lady, took of his chieftain robe to change into the hundred birds costume. Zhang helped the chieftain into the costume, and using this opportunity, stabbed the chieftain to death. Zhang and his wife then departed from the palace and went to a faraway place, where they lived happily.

 

It is assumed that the legend was a commentary on the injustices of the hierarchical system, and was created back in the days when the Tusi, who were hereditary tribal leaders recognized as imperial officials, ruled parts of southwest China, from the Yuan to the Qing dynasties. Due to the lack of written documentation, the story could be only preserved through verbal accounts and the collection work done by the poet Wei Qilun in the 1950s and 60s, and who wrote a poem based on the legend in 1955.

 

The legend of Hundred Birds Costume has also been adapted into other genres of performing arts, including the Zhuang Opera and an acrobatic show that premiered in 2018.

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