八達嶺長城傳說  Legends of the Great Wall of Badaling

所屬名錄: 第二批國家級名錄

編號: I-32

申報地區或單位: 北京市延慶縣

Inscribed list: National List, Second Batch

Inventory no.: I-32

Nominating unit(s): Beijing, Yanqing County

八達嶺長城傳說是指北京八達嶺一帶充滿方言特點,結合神話浪漫和人文色彩的傳統民間傳說。

 

八達嶺長城有接近二千多年歷史,使該區域以長城、關隘、烽火臺為題材的傳說較豐富,是中國長城文化的重要引證。當中有關長城的神仙傳說包括《仙女點金磚》、《長城三關的來歷》、《張果老修拐脊樓》等。孟姜女的傳說有《粽子為啥是三角的》、《孟姜女哭長城》等。除此之外,亦有關於八達嶺命名傳說,如《元仁宗誕生於延慶》、《把韃嶺》等,具濃厚地方特色。以下略述《仙女點金磚》的內容:

 

很久以前八達嶺一帶下了一場長達二十多天的雨,山泥崩塌壓毀嶺下村落,導致百姓無家可歸,唯有在山上挨餓忍寒。當年放賑的官員蘆瑞吝糧,欺壓百姓。突然從災民中出現有一個貌美姑娘,蘆瑞對之著迷,邀為媳婦。姑娘答允,惟要求蘆瑞用小錘敲鑿長城石磚,運到蘆家中壘成長城,以解思鄉之緒。蘆瑞諾之。翌日派驢車運磚,突然車墜輪破,原來的磚頭全變黃金。蘆瑞喜極,把糧食盡送百姓。蘆瑞只顧運走金子,沒有招待來視察之欽差,欽差命人綁起蘆瑞痛打,蘆瑞唯有招出金磚之事。不料,當欽差查證時,只見城磚。欽差大怒,奪小錘砸死了蘆瑞。突然「轟」一聲屍首著火,後背燒出「欺壓百姓必死」的皺痕。欽差驚之上轎速回京師,百姓終得溫飽。當晚長城上亮起零星的光點,百姓猜為仙女點金磚的金光。翌日有人上山一看,長城全補好了。

 

除了口耳相傳,八達嶺長城傳說經不同書籍的整理,保存與承傳都得改善。2016年北京市文化局批准延慶縣政府新增池尚明為八達嶺長城傳說代表性傳承人。他走訪收集和撰寫長城傳說二百餘篇近三十六年,其中一百五十篇八達嶺長城傳說故事在各類期刊發表。他亦有參與講述長城故事和民間文學培訓等推廣活動。

 

「八達嶺長城傳說」於2008年列入第二批國家級非物質文化。

Legends of the Great Wall of Badaling are folk stories centered on the area of Badaling, a part of the Great Wall near Jurong Pass.  Mythic, historical or romantic in style, these stories reveal the local culture in Badaling.

 

Due to the two-thousand-year history of the Great Wall of Badaling, the stories are rich in content. Some stories are regarded as references to official history, and have become symbols of the Great Wall. Legends involving miraculous elements include “The Fairy Magicked Gold Bricks” (仙女點金磚), “The Origins of the Three Passes of the Great Wall” (長城三關的來歷), “Zhang Guoluo building the Turning Spine Tower” (張果老修拐脊樓), and so forth.  Legends concerning the Lady Meng Jiang (孟姜女) include, “Why Was Rice Dumpling Triangular?” (粽子為啥是三角的), “Lady Meng Jiang Weeping at the Great Wall” (孟姜女哭長城), and more.  The story of “Lady Meng Jiang Weeping at the Great Wall is itself one of the Four Great Folktales of China, and is about a woman whose husband was pressed into corvee labor to build the Great all of China. Seeking to find out news of her husband, the woman arrived at the Great Wall and learned of her death.  Hearing the news, she wept so bitterly that a part of the Great Wall collapsed, revealing his bones. Legends about the naming of Badaling include “Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan Was Born in Yanqing” (元仁宗誕生於延慶), “The Ridge of Defensing Tatar” (把韃嶺), and more.

 

The following is a brief story of “The Fairy Magicked Gold Bricks”:

 

A long time ago, it rained in Badaling for more than twenty days. The heavy rain created landslides that washed away the people’s houses. They could only stay on the hill, hungry from the lack of food. Yet the assisting officer, Lu Rui, did not distribute the food and kept it for himself. A pretty young lady appeared one day, whom Lu saw and immediately desired. When he invited her to be his wife, she demanded that she first build a copy of the Great Wall at his house, using a small chisel to take away the bricks from the Great Wall of Badaling. The next day, Lu took away the bricks from the Great Wall with donkey carts. Suddenly, the carts broke, and he discovered that all the bricks had turned to gold. Lu Rui then distributed all the food to the people with wild joy, even forgetting to receive the commissioner from the central government. The commissioner punished him until Lu told him about the gold. However, all gold bricks returned to normal when the commissioner checked the carts. In anger, the commissioner broke through Lu’s head with the chisel. After a few seconds, Lu’s corpse was suddenly ablaze with fire, and on his back appeared the words “those that oppress the people must die.”  The commissioner was frightened into leaving immediately.  Thereafter the people in the area enjoyed peace, and were able to eat and sleep well.  One night, some people spotted spots of light on the Great Wall. The very next day, they found that the Wall that had been damaged by Lu had been fixed, leading the people to believe that it was the magic of the fairy.

 

The stories have traditionally been passed on orally, but now most of them have been collected for organization and publication, for better preservation of this kind of intangible cultural heritage. In 2016 the Beijing Municipal Bureau of Culture approved Chi Shang-ming to be the inheritor of Legends of the Great Wall of Badaling. For 36 years, Chi has researched, interviewed and recorded more than 200 legends, of which 150 have been published in different periodicals. Moreover, he has participated in many promotion events, such as talks and training courses on folk literature.

 

Since 2008, the item of Legends of the Great Wall of Badaling has been included in the second batch of the National List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of China, applied by Yanqing county in Beijing.

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