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蒙古族長調民歌  Mongolian Changdiao 

所屬名錄: 第一批國家級名錄

編號: II - 3

申報地區或單位: 內蒙古自治區

Inscribed list: National List, First Batch

Inventory no.: II - 3

Nominating unit(s): Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region

長調民歌是蒙古族的一種抒情民歌體裁。他們一般會在傳統節慶、日常生活及放牧時歌唱長調。長調,蒙古語為「烏日汀道」(urtiin duu),其中「烏日汀」(urtiin)有好幾個意思,如「長」、「久」等意;而「道」(duu)則解作「歌」。綜合來看,「烏日汀道」可解作長歌。而「長調」亦可看作是「烏日汀道」的意譯。







The Mongolian long songs (“changdiao” in Chinese; “urtiin duu” in Mongolian) are a type of traditional song of the Mongolian ethnic group.  Changdiao are sung during celebrations, traditional festivals, and in daily life.


The origins of changdiao are difficult to confirm due to the lack of historical texts.  Some say that changdiao may have existed from the time of the Xiongnu (匈奴) around the third century BC, while others have hypothesized that it has existed since the seventh century, when the ancestors of the Mongolian people migrated to the Mongolian plateau.  The ancestors of the Mongolian people changed the way of life from hunting to raising livestock, influencing the creation of the changdiao, which reflect the pastoral lifestyle. The themes of changdiao songs are various, such as praise for Genghis Khan, an appreciation for nature, and love.  Changdiao are a reflection of the nomadic way of life, and also the history, culture and traditional customs of the Mongolian people.  After hundreds of years, Changdiao has developed into a style of music with its own unique elements. Today, it is one of the most important forms of traditional Mongolian music.


Changdiao is a kind of lyrical song, and it is characterized by an abundance of ornamentation and falsetto with a wide vocal range and free compositional form.  The length vocalization means that a symbol syllable can be extended for a long duration.  Breath training is required to sing changdiao, and there are special methods for breath training such as the ‘thirty-three calabash’ (sanshisan ge hulu) and the ‘thirty-three dragon bottle’(sanshisan ge longhu).


There are regional differences in Urtiin duu, for example, Urtiin duu in Mongolia differs from that in China.  Vocal ornamentations may be different, as well as musical accompaniment, and the incorporation of harmny or additional voices. Such differences are reflected in training that musicians receive from their local musical institutions.


In 2006, Mongolian changdiao was included in the First Batch of the National List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of China. One year before this, changdiao was declared as one of UNESCO’s Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. At the same time, Badema, Modega, Baoyindeligeer, Alatanqiqige and Zhagedasurong were announced as the representative inheritors of Mongolian changdiao.


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