蒙古族長調民歌  Mongolian Changdiao 

所屬名錄: 第一批國家級名錄

編號: II - 3

申報地區或單位: 內蒙古自治區

Inscribed list: National List, First Batch

Inventory no.: II - 3

Nominating unit(s): Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region

長調民歌是蒙古族的一種抒情民歌體裁。他們一般會在傳統節慶、日常生活及放牧時歌唱長調。長調,蒙古語為「烏日汀道」(urtiin duu),其中「烏日汀」(urtiin)有好幾個意思,如「長」、「久」等意;而「道」(duu)則解作「歌」。綜合來看,「烏日汀道」可解作長歌。而「長調」亦可看作是「烏日汀道」的意譯。

 

長調的起源由於資料不全而難以得出結論,有人認為長調或早在匈奴時期,即公元前三世紀或以後出現;亦有人認為在約公元七世紀時,因蒙古族的祖先遷往蒙古高原,由狩獵業轉為畜牧業而開始出現長調。因為題材總是與遊牧民族的社會生活及民間風俗息息相關,所以長調被認為是遊牧民族在畜牧業從事勞動生產時創作出的民歌,如有歌頌成吉思汗、讚美家鄉風景、唱頌大自然及講述愛情等。經過千年的歷史發展與變革,長調已形成一套完整而獨特的音樂形式與風格,並成為了今日草原音樂文化代表之一。

 

長調是一種抒情歌曲,特點是運用大量裝飾音和假聲,同時有著極其寬廣的音域。不同的唱法都有相應的術語與概念體系,其中包括「諾古拉」(華彩性裝飾音)、「柴如拉咪」(頭腔共鳴)、「嘯爾古拉呼」(假聲演唱)、「杭嗄呼」(唱腔的延長)等。要演唱長調,必先從氣息的訓練開始,其中有「三十三個葫蘆」、「三十三個龍壺」等練習氣息與運氣的方法。而長調亦有地域差異,例如在蒙古國的長調與在中國自治區的長調在音樂伴奏、和聲和演唱形式等演繹方式亦受當地文化和教法影響而有差異

       

在2006年,蒙古族長調民歌被列入為第一批國家非物質文化遺產。而在較早一年2005年,更已被列入聯合國人類口述及非物質文化遺產項目,同時亦公佈了一批長調藝術家為此遺產的傳承人,如巴德瑪、莫德格、寶音德力格爾、阿拉坦其其格、扎格達蘇榮等。

The Mongolian long songs (“changdiao” in Chinese; “urtiin duu” in Mongolian) are a type of traditional song of the Mongolian ethnic group.  Changdiao are sung during celebrations, traditional festivals, and in daily life.

 

The origins of changdiao are difficult to confirm due to the lack of historical texts.  Some say that changdiao may have existed from the time of the Xiongnu (匈奴) around the third century BC, while others have hypothesized that it has existed since the seventh century, when the ancestors of the Mongolian people migrated to the Mongolian plateau.  The ancestors of the Mongolian people changed the way of life from hunting to raising livestock, influencing the creation of the changdiao, which reflect the pastoral lifestyle. The themes of changdiao songs are various, such as praise for Genghis Khan, an appreciation for nature, and love.  Changdiao are a reflection of the nomadic way of life, and also the history, culture and traditional customs of the Mongolian people.  After hundreds of years, Changdiao has developed into a style of music with its own unique elements. Today, it is one of the most important forms of traditional Mongolian music.

 

Changdiao is a kind of lyrical song, and it is characterized by an abundance of ornamentation and falsetto with a wide vocal range and free compositional form.  The length vocalization means that a symbol syllable can be extended for a long duration.  Breath training is required to sing changdiao, and there are special methods for breath training such as the ‘thirty-three calabash’ (sanshisan ge hulu) and the ‘thirty-three dragon bottle’(sanshisan ge longhu).

 

There are regional differences in Urtiin duu, for example, Urtiin duu in Mongolia differs from that in China.  Vocal ornamentations may be different, as well as musical accompaniment, and the incorporation of harmny or additional voices. Such differences are reflected in training that musicians receive from their local musical institutions.

 

In 2006, Mongolian changdiao was included in the First Batch of the National List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of China. One year before this, changdiao was declared as one of UNESCO’s Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. At the same time, Badema, Modega, Baoyindeligeer, Alatanqiqige and Zhagedasurong were announced as the representative inheritors of Mongolian changdiao.

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