京西太平鼓 Jingxi Taiping Drum Dance
編號: III - 1
Inscribed list: National List, First Batch
Inventory no.: III - 1
Nominating unit(s): Beijing, Mentougou District
The Jingxi (Beijing West) Taiping Drum Dance is a folk dance popular in the Mentougou district of Beijing. In the past, farmers would play drums and dance in December and January of the Lunar calendar, to pray for peace and fortune.
The early forms of the Taiping (meaning “peace”) Drum Dance dates back to the Tang Dynasty, and it was performed on New Year’s Eve and during the Lantern Festival. The Taiping Drum Dance. The dance style spread to Beijing in the Ming dynasty, and became popular in the Qing dynasty, leading to the regional development of what is now known as the Jingxi Taiping Drum Dance. In Beijing there is another name for the dance, “New Year Drum Dance” (迎年鼓). It is said that one villager from Mentougou who worked in an officer’s mansion in Beijing learned the dance and brought it to his village.
The Taiping drum looks like a fan, and is a flat, round, one-sided drum with a handle. The surface of the drum is made of parchment or kraft paper, with pompons sometimes around the frame of the drum, and steel ring(s) at the end of the handle, with smaller rings that can jingle. Performers play the drums with a stick held in their right hand. They jump, dance and play drums in pairs. The Taiping Drum Dance pay equal attention to singing and dancing. “Chang Sheng” (唱繩) is the pattern of striking the drum, then singing. Performances will have both singing will striking the drum, and dancing will striking the drum. The basic moves of male performers are “shen jing” (煽勁) and “gen jing” (艮勁), while basic moves for female performers are “niu jing” (扭勁) and “chan jing” (顫勁), which are moves that were influenced by the practice of footbinding. There are 12 basic moves that exist.
The music for the dance consists mostly of two parts: “gu dian” (鼓點) and “chang qu” (唱曲). Gu dian is the drum melody, and is mostly in quarter notes, called “dan gudian” (單鼓點), while music primarily with quaver or semiquaver notes is called “shuang gu dian” (雙鼓點). The contents of chang qu, or the sung part, are mainly folk stories and descriptions of the landscape. “Da Shan Gu” (大扇鼓), “Xiao Shan Gu” (小扇鼓), “Zhui Gu” (追鼓) are examples of Taiping Drum music.
In 1953, Fan Bao-shan (樊寶善), an old artist of Taiping Drum in Xidian Village (西店村), held courses for the villagers and arranged the dance “He Ping Gu” (和平鼓, The Drum of Peace) for a performance in the Beijing Working People’s Cultural Palace, which brought Taiping Drum into the spotlight. Taiping Drum performances were invited to be part of the 35th National Day celebrations in Tian’anmen, and the opening ceremony of the 11th Asian Games in Beijing. Since 2006, three primary schools in Mentougou have been nominated as Taiping Drum Heritage Schools to pass on the tradition to the next generation. Since 2006, Gao Hung-wei (高洪偉), the inheritor of Xijing Taiping Drum, has led his father’s Taiping Drum team in promoting the intangible cultural heritage around the country. Moreover they participated in Beijing Traditions in Sydney (北京風情舞動悉尼) in 2006, drawing attention overseas to the dance form.
Beijing West Taiping Drum has been included in the first batch of the National List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of China in 2016, applied by Mentougou district in Beijing.
更多相關資料 MORE INFORMATION:
A news documentary introducing Beijing west Taiping Drum, with an interview of the inheritor Gao Hung-wei (高洪偉),and performances and trainings of his team. Produced and broadcasted by RBC.cn in 2015.