天橋摔跤 Tianqiao Shuaijiao (Wrestling)

所屬名錄: 第二批國家級名錄

編號: VI - 21

申報地區或單位: 北京市宣武區

Inscribed list: National List, Second Batch

Inventory no.: VI - 21

Nominating unit(s): Beijing, Xuanwu District

天橋摔跤源於清代之「官跤」。中國摔跤運動源遠流長,至清代得大力發展。康熙帝為剿權臣鰲拜,找來宮中侍衛以外,組成一支少年團隊,藉為陪帝練習「布庫」(滿人之摔跤稱呼)。鰲拜被擒後,摔跤團變為「善撲營」,獨立於六部,直隸皇帝的內衛部隊,摔跤因而冠以「官跤」之名。至滿清滅亡,原為善撲營之衛士留落民間,當中頭等撲戶宛八爺在天橋紅廟(金鐘廟下院)開設跤館授徒。「官跤」此後統稱「摜跤」。

 

跤館的第二代摔跤藝人中,著名的有沈友三(沈三)和寶善林(寶三)等人。沈三是宛八爺的得意門生,在天橋開清真藥室,以演武推銷藥品,及後轉為專職表演跤藝,於天橋打響名堂,更在1932及1933年成為北平市摔跤比賽及南京全國運動會摔跤冠軍。寶三的摔跤技術訓練重三盤(上、中、下盤),技法是「大絆(如吸、摟、刮等主體動作)三十六、小絆(大絆子的變化技巧)如牛毛」。而特有的中幡表演是寶三習得天橋中幡藝人王小辮之技後,將之融入摔跤以提升觀感。除了體術部分,更受百姓捧場的是藝人在旁的說唱表演。與相聲固定計劃的包袱(笑料)不一,天橋跤藝的說唱人要做到「現掛」(以現場情況編織笑話),除了能考驗藝人應變力與口材,同時能展現天橋摔跤的「武相聲」風格。

 

比賽為三局兩勝制,每場必滿三跤。摔跤藝人上身穿跤衣(又稱褡褳),質地頗堅硬,衣上無扣,腰間需系上一條寬腰帶;下身穿寬闊的套褲(又叫燈籠褲)以便活動;腳穿高靴,前後有凸肚,稱「螳螂肚」。開始比武時,雙方會於場上一邊「晃花架」(跳步周旋),一邊尋找機會進攻搏擊。

 

天橋摔跤由於欠缺固定的練功和演出場地,難度高又收入不穩,使跤壇出現老化。為了解決老化問題,北京市政府除了提供財政支援傳承人外,亦設「西城非物質文化遺產保護中心」,以便宣揚包括天橋摔跤等的天橋技藝,如舉辦「天橋民俗文化節」、校園非遺活動等。除了政府外,寶三跤場的後人同樣重視傳承工作。寶三弟子馬貴保及傅順祿各為摔跤傳承盡力,馬師父於2014年著《跤譜》一書將跤藝練習及自身經歷傳世,又廣招弟子宏揚天橋摔跤,其徒韓國卿成立相關的文化傳播公司,利用新媒體宣傳跤藝;傅師父得其師摔跤與中幡技藝,其子傅文剛習成後著手授徒與宣傳工作,成立「傅氏天橋寶三民俗文化藝術團」於全國表演及宏揚家傳。

 

「天橋摔跤」於2008年列入第二批國家級非物質文化遺產代表。

Tianqiao Shuaijiao, or Tianqiao wrestling, originated from “Guan Jiao” (官跤) in the Qing Dynasty. Shuaijiao is an ancient sport with its beginnings in the Zhou Dynasty, experiencing changes throughout the dynasties.  In the Qing dynasty, the art of Shuaijiao was professionalized by the government.  Emperor Kangxi formed a group of young wrestlers in order to launch a sneak attack on Aobai (鰲拜), an ambitious minister. After the successful attack, the group was formalized as “Shan Pu Ying” (善撲營), directly commanded by the emperor. The warriors of this force refined the martial art to an unprecedented level. After the Qing Dynasty, Shan Pu Ying was dismissed and one of the top wrestlers, Wan Young-shun (宛永順 or Wan Baye宛八爺), opened a wrestling school in Tianqiao, Beijing.

 

Two of the famous masters from Wan’s wrestling school who had a heavy hand in developing Tianqiao wrestling are Shen San (沈三 or 沈友三) and Bao San (寶三 or 寶善林). Shen San was Wan Young-shun’s favorite pupil.  He had opened an Islamic Pharmacy in Tianqiao, often performing martial arts to attract customers, and later turning to performing wrestling as a full-time occupation.  He won the inner-city and national wrestling competition respectively in Peking in 1932 and Nanjing in 1933.

 

Shen’s leading status in the world of Peking wrestling was later replaced by Bao San, who established his skills at Longfusi (隆福寺). Bao San developed techniques related to the use of crosstalk and banner (zhongfan 中幡, an intangible cultural heritage in Tianqiao). There are 36 major actions, such as hugging and scratching, which can be changed into various ways of attack when needed. Bao’s skills of zhongfan were learned from Wang Xiao-bian (王小辮), a zhongfan artist in Tianqiao. Apart from the actual wrestling skills, audiences of wrestling matches are also attracted by the witty crosstalk. Unlike the comedic crosstalk performed on stage, crosstalk in Tianqiao wrestling requires the performer’s resourcefulness and eloquence because they speak for the live wrestling performance without a script. Therefore, Tianqiao wrestling is also called “Wu Xiangsheng” (Martial Crosstalk武相聲).

 

The winner of a Tianqiao wrestling competition is determined by the best of three sets. The wrestlers wear a hard vest jacket called “da lian” (褡褳) that has no buttons and is held closed by just a belt, a pair of wide pants, and a pair of boots called “tanglangdu” (belly of mantis螳螂肚).  When the game starts, two wrestlers will circle each other with jumps, waiting for the time to attack. This is called “huang huajia”(晃花架)

 

With the lack of spaces for regular training and performing, unstable incomes and the hardship of training, the practice of Shuaijiao is on the decline. Besides providing financial subsidies, the municipal and district departments in Bejing set up a “Xicheng District Intangible Cultural Heritage Center” to promote cultures in Xicheng District, including Tianqiao wrestling.  They have also organized a Tianqiao Folk Cultural Festival, and school events related to cultural heritage. The inheritors of Bao San’s Tianqiao wrestling also value the heritage. For example, in 2014 Ma Gui-bao (馬貴保) published Jiao Pu (《跤譜》), a book introducing training methods of Chinese wrestling, and he actively recruits disciples. One of Ma’s disciples, Han Guo-qing (韓國卿), has started a culture and media company promoting Tianqiao wrestling via new media. Another disciple of Bao San, Fu Shun-lu (傅順祿), inherited Bao’s wrestling and zhongfan techniques. His son Fu Wen-gang has learned these techniques and aspires to safeguard the traditions, by founding “Fu’s Tianqiao Baosan Art Troupe” (傅氏天橋寶三民俗文化藝術團) to perform Tianqiao acrobatics around the country.

 

Since 2008, Tianqiao Wrestling has been included in the second batch of the National List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of China, applied by Xuanwu district in Beijing.

更多相關資料 MORE INFORMATION:

視頻 Video:

A newsreel of Tianqiao wrestling, with an interview of Master Fu Wen-gang, the official inheritor, and demonstrations by Fu’s Tianqiao Baosan Art Troupe, produced by Beijing TV news in 2014.

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