天橋摔跤 Tianqiao Shuaijiao (Wrestling)
編號: VI - 21
Inscribed list: National List, Second Batch
Inventory no.: VI - 21
Nominating unit(s): Beijing, Xuanwu District
Tianqiao Shuaijiao, or Tianqiao wrestling, originated from “Guan Jiao” (官跤) in the Qing Dynasty. Shuaijiao is an ancient sport with its beginnings in the Zhou Dynasty, experiencing changes throughout the dynasties. In the Qing dynasty, the art of Shuaijiao was professionalized by the government. Emperor Kangxi formed a group of young wrestlers in order to launch a sneak attack on Aobai (鰲拜), an ambitious minister. After the successful attack, the group was formalized as “Shan Pu Ying” (善撲營), directly commanded by the emperor. The warriors of this force refined the martial art to an unprecedented level. After the Qing Dynasty, Shan Pu Ying was dismissed and one of the top wrestlers, Wan Young-shun (宛永順 or Wan Baye宛八爺), opened a wrestling school in Tianqiao, Beijing.
Two of the famous masters from Wan’s wrestling school who had a heavy hand in developing Tianqiao wrestling are Shen San (沈三 or 沈友三) and Bao San (寶三 or 寶善林). Shen San was Wan Young-shun’s favorite pupil. He had opened an Islamic Pharmacy in Tianqiao, often performing martial arts to attract customers, and later turning to performing wrestling as a full-time occupation. He won the inner-city and national wrestling competition respectively in Peking in 1932 and Nanjing in 1933.
Shen’s leading status in the world of Peking wrestling was later replaced by Bao San, who established his skills at Longfusi (隆福寺). Bao San developed techniques related to the use of crosstalk and banner (zhongfan 中幡, an intangible cultural heritage in Tianqiao). There are 36 major actions, such as hugging and scratching, which can be changed into various ways of attack when needed. Bao’s skills of zhongfan were learned from Wang Xiao-bian (王小辮), a zhongfan artist in Tianqiao. Apart from the actual wrestling skills, audiences of wrestling matches are also attracted by the witty crosstalk. Unlike the comedic crosstalk performed on stage, crosstalk in Tianqiao wrestling requires the performer’s resourcefulness and eloquence because they speak for the live wrestling performance without a script. Therefore, Tianqiao wrestling is also called “Wu Xiangsheng” (Martial Crosstalk武相聲).
The winner of a Tianqiao wrestling competition is determined by the best of three sets. The wrestlers wear a hard vest jacket called “da lian” (褡褳) that has no buttons and is held closed by just a belt, a pair of wide pants, and a pair of boots called “tanglangdu” (belly of mantis螳螂肚). When the game starts, two wrestlers will circle each other with jumps, waiting for the time to attack. This is called “huang huajia”(晃花架)
With the lack of spaces for regular training and performing, unstable incomes and the hardship of training, the practice of Shuaijiao is on the decline. Besides providing financial subsidies, the municipal and district departments in Bejing set up a “Xicheng District Intangible Cultural Heritage Center” to promote cultures in Xicheng District, including Tianqiao wrestling. They have also organized a Tianqiao Folk Cultural Festival, and school events related to cultural heritage. The inheritors of Bao San’s Tianqiao wrestling also value the heritage. For example, in 2014 Ma Gui-bao (馬貴保) published Jiao Pu (《跤譜》), a book introducing training methods of Chinese wrestling, and he actively recruits disciples. One of Ma’s disciples, Han Guo-qing (韓國卿), has started a culture and media company promoting Tianqiao wrestling via new media. Another disciple of Bao San, Fu Shun-lu (傅順祿), inherited Bao’s wrestling and zhongfan techniques. His son Fu Wen-gang has learned these techniques and aspires to safeguard the traditions, by founding “Fu’s Tianqiao Baosan Art Troupe” (傅氏天橋寶三民俗文化藝術團) to perform Tianqiao acrobatics around the country.
Since 2008, Tianqiao Wrestling has been included in the second batch of the National List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of China, applied by Xuanwu district in Beijing.
更多相關資料 MORE INFORMATION:
A newsreel of Tianqiao wrestling, with an interview of Master Fu Wen-gang, the official inheritor, and demonstrations by Fu’s Tianqiao Baosan Art Troupe, produced by Beijing TV news in 2014.