內畫 Neihua
(衡水內畫、北京內畫鼻煙壺、廣東內畫、魯派內畫)
(Hengshui neihua, Beijing snuff bottle neihua, Guangdong neihua, Lu-style neihua)
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所屬名錄: 第一批國家級名錄

編號: VII-15

申報地區或單位: 河北省衡水市,北京市西城區,廣東省汕頭市,山東省淄博市張店區

Inscribed list: National List, First Batch

Inventory no.: VII-15

Nominating unit(s): Hebei Province, Hengshui City; Beijing Municipality, Xicheng District; Guangdong Province, Shantou City; Shandong Province, Zibo City, Zhangdian District

內畫藝術始於清中葉,是一種於鼻煙壺內繪畫的精巧技藝。鼻煙壺由十七世紀傳入中國,康熙、雍正年間開始自行製造,材質多為琉璃、琥珀、象牙、陶瓷等具透光性物料。內畫技師在內繪畫前,必先用金剛砂混水於小壺沖擦磨砂,使內壁粗糙以便著墨,此步驟謂「串膛」。之後,畫師會將一支特製細小的竹勾筆從壺口伸入壺內,凝住氣以手工筆繪畫於內壁。由於圖案是在內透光在壺面成畫,畫師須將畫左右反轉繪製,並從壺面直視效果。常見之內畫題材有歷史人物、傳說、山水、花鳥、書法。

 

內畫之源未有定論。一說是一名落泊的嗜煙官員因事滯留一寺廟中,盤川用盡但煙癮難耐,只好把鼻煙壺殘餘的煙渣挖出,意外挖出自然有律的圖紋。一僧人見此並受啟發,仿之以小勾沾墨在壺內繪畫。另外於香港鼻煙壺研究者梁知行著《中國內畫鼻煙壺新貌》曰,內畫技法或由嘉慶年間一個南方畫家甘桓文(或稱甘桓)發明。他用小鋼珠、石英粉混水沖磨鼻煙壺內壁作畫。內畫鼻煙壺鮮有文獻所載,難以證明發展,疑為現存最早之內畫鼻煙壺是現藏普林斯頓大學藝術博物館,甘氏於嘉慶二十一年(1816年)署製之鼻煙壺,為少數有年款之內畫壺。以其成熟技法推測,內畫技術應是嘉慶以前已出現。又有說內畫是受17世紀由歐洲傳到中國之玻璃畫啟發,兩者皆是從背面反轉作畫。

 

中國有四大內畫派別:京、魯、冀、粵。京派為四派之祖,歷史最久,特色是畫風古樸、筆法剛勁清雅、著色飽滿圓潤,甚具文人雅志。當中代表有晚清的周樂元、馬少宣、葉仲三。魯派擅畫粗豪瀟灑、具山東地方特色的題材,如百駿、《水滸傳》人物等。其著名特色是利用瓷器上的釉彩在鼻煙壺內壁作畫,再烘燒形成內畫鼻煙壺的瓷釉畫。此派是由代表人物畢九榮,於1890年在京學成內畫後歸魯所創。冀派年資不及前兩派,但被奉為現代中國內畫代表,影響深遠。它將更多更深的國畫技法,如皺、擦、染、點、勾、絲等引入內畫,又以西方油畫的著色風格融入其中,使圖案莊重深厚、形象逼真。而冀派擅畫人物畫,特別是嬰戲圖、百子圖。粵派與前三派風格明顯不同,壺身多有描金裝飾,而畫風重裝飾風格,用彩鮮艷,甚具嶺南異彩。

 

與一般民間非遺不同,鼻煙壺內畫的經濟與美學價值高,仍然受人追捧。然而近年不少收藏家只以拍賣價值視之,忽視當中文化價值;低成本機械化量產的內畫鼻煙壺嚴重打擊畫師長時間手繪內畫的市場,畫師難以維生或另覓高就,或無新人願意入行,不利非遺承傳。於是不少承傳人想辦法,引入新產品如內畫香水瓶、打火機等開拓市場,特別是年青客群。另外建立品牌有助統一內畫形象與較易宣揚當中的文化精神,如衡水冀派的習三內畫藝術院,是由官方傳承人王習三創辦的廠牌,推出新品外亦收徒傳授內畫工藝,加大推廣效果之餘也使中國非遺薪火相傳。

 

「衡水內畫」由河北衡水市申請,於2006年成功列入第一批國家級非物質文化遺產名錄;「北京內畫鼻煙壺」及「廣東內畫」分別由北京西城區及廣東汕頭市申請,於2008年列入第一批國家級非物質文化遺產擴展項目名錄;「魯派內畫」則由山東淄博張店區申請,於2014年列入國家級非物質文化遺產代表性項目名錄擴展項目名錄。

Neihua (literally “Inner painting” or “inside painted”) is a technical and delicate art that has existed since the Mid-Qing Dynasty. Neihua is most commonly done on snuff bottles of glass, crystal or amber. The artist will first scrub the inside of the snuff bottle with a mixture of silicon carbide and water in a process called Chuantang串膛—this creates a rough surface that makes it easier to draw on. For the actual painting process, the artist will use a tiny and crooked bamboo brush, inserted through the narrow bottle mouth, to paint inside the bottle. Since the images are drawn inside, the artist needs to develop the skill of painting backwards.  Common themes of neihua are historical figures, myths, landscapes, flowers and birds, and Chinese calligraphy.  

 

The origins of neihua is unclear. One story says that an idle officer in a temple, who was addicted to taking snuff but didn’t have enough money, used a stick to scratch out the last of the remaining snuff in the bottle. The stick created scratch marks that appeared as beautiful patterns on the bottle. A monk saw it and was inspired to paint inside the bottle using a tiny hook and ink. Another story, stated in A New Look at Snuff Bottle Neihua in China (《中國內畫鼻煙壺新貌》) written by Leung Che-hang (梁知行), was that in during the reign of Jiaqing (嘉慶), a young Lingnan painter named Gan Huan-wen (甘桓文) or Gan Huan (甘桓) scrubbed the inside of a snuff bottle by shaking a small steel ball with quartz powder mixed with water, and painted on the blasted, paper-like inner walls of the bottle. The earliest existing snuff bottle that can be dated (due to an inscription) is claimed to be one collected in Princeton University Art Museum is Gan’s work, made in autumn in 1816 (the 21st year of the Jiaqing reign period). The snuff bottle by Gan displays mature technique, indicating that the invention of neihua was developed before the time of Jiaqing. It has also been proposed that Chinese inner painting was inspired by Western glass painting which was also drawn backwards, and was brought to China by preachers from Europe in the 17th century.

 

There are four major schools of neihua: Jing (京, meaning Beijing), Lu (魯, meaning Shandong), Ji (冀, meaning Hebei), and Yue (粵, meaning Guangdong). The Jing style is the oldest school, and is characterized by the aesthetics of ancient literati, emphasizing noble and cultured conceptions with poems, calligraphy and painting, using strict and strong brushwork. The master of flower-and-bird paintings, Zhou le-yuan (周樂元), and masters of figure painting Ma Shao-xuan (馬少宣) and Ye Zhong-san (葉仲三) from the Late-Qing period are representatives of the Jing style. The Lu style is characterized by a carefree quality, and likely subject matters are heroic and local themes, for example One Hundred Horses (百駿), and characters from Water Margin (水滸傳).  A defining characteristic is the technique of painting with original glaze onto a porcelain snuff bottle and then firing the glaze.  Bi Jiu-rong (畢九榮) , who returned to Shandong in 1890 after learning neihua in Beijing, is the founder and the most symbolic painter of the Lu style. The Ji style is younger but is very influential, as Hengshui neihua is regarded as representative of modern neihua. The Ji school introduced to neihua advanced skills of classical Chinese painting such as cracking (皴) and dyeing (染), and integrates some techniques of western oil painting in rich colours to sharpen the images. The Ji school artists are masters in figure painting, especially the motifs of “Children at play” (a motif that alludes to the family line and posterity), and “100 children” (often associated with weddings).  The youngest Yue style, formed after the Cultural Revolution, has marked differences from the other schools in their decorative style, and their use of glamorous coloring and golden patterns.  

 

Unlike many folk intangible cultural heritages, there is an established market and monetary value for neihua, and they are also recognized for their artistic value. However, because collections of snuff bottle can be of monetary value, this can overshadow their value to traditional Chinese culture. Mechanized mass production has also harmed the livelihood of traditional neihua artists, because the longer time and higher labor costs of painting by hand can make them less competitive.  Facing these risks, inheritors of the art have found some solutions to protect the industry as well as the traditional techniques. New varieties and designs of neihua, such as neihua perfume bottles and lighters, have attracted attention from consumers, especially the newer generation. Moreover, branding helps to not only boost the image of hand-drawn neihua in the market, but also to promote its culture in a recognizable way. For example, Hengshui neihua can be considered a brand that is effective in promoting the Ji style of neihua. To inherit and pass on the tradition and to sustain the industry, a system of technical training for the next generation is essential. Xisan Art Academy of Neihua has been set up by Wang Xi-san, the legitimate inheritor of Ji-style inner painting in Hengshui, to pass on this invaluable artistic technique.

A short video on neihua snuff bottles, including a brief process of drawing neihua as well as an interview of one of the painters Yang Zhigang talking about his story of learning and inheriting inner painting, produced by China Daily Multimedia in 2010.

粵派瓶內畫主要傳承人、賴乙寧

Guangdong neihua inheritor, Lai Yining.