所屬名錄: 第二批國家級名錄

編號: VIII - 174

申報地區或單位: 故宮博物院

Inscribed list: National List,Second Batch

Inventory no.: VIII - 174

Nominating unit(s): The Palace Museum

北京紫禁城建成至今歷六百多年,為明清兩代宮城,亦是中國官式古建築營造技藝之典範。其官式古建築營造技藝可追溯至明代成祖遷都燕京,建造紫禁城之時。成祖徵全國之巧手能匠、用各地之優工雅藝。惟明一代並未有官式建築文獻,後人依清雍正《清工部工程做法》,參透當中達數十項工藝之形制。瓦、木、紮(搭彩)、石、土、油漆、彩畫、糊(裱糊)時稱「八大作」,為宮廷常用工藝。

 

例如木作,於併組木件時的「彈線」步驟尤其重要,故會由經驗老到的掌線師父負責,並規定了記號的樣式,方便檢校及不同工序工匠之間的溝通;又例如木梁有桃尖梁、踩步金、七架梁和帽兒梁等。除了長寬有明確數字要求,亦提到梁款的功用及詳盡的製作步驟,如刨底、刮出圓柱直徑十分三榫眼等。

 

同時官式建築比民間建築更講究形制與身份地位的關係。如主要宮殿之斗拱彩數最多;彩畫以龍鳳題材最高貴,錦緞幾何紋樣為次,花卉、風景等次要題材在中小型庭園建築中應用;皇家建築之台基可高達五尺,公侯以下三品以上可高二尺,四品到平民准高一尺;一般皇室宮殿開間有九進深有五,公侯廳堂七間,三到五品廳堂七間而門用黑漆,六至九品廳堂三間。故此其技藝繁複而精緻。

 

由辛亥革命後至1949年,北方政局持續動盪,故宮未有得到完善修整。新中國成立後政府著力故宮的修繕保存,於1953年設故宮博物院工程隊,集合各專長之技工。當中有被稱「故宮十老」的十位老工匠,包括擅木作的杜伯堂、馬進考、穆文華、張文忠;擅瓦作的周鳳山、張國安;擅彩畫的張連卿、何文奎;擅石作的劉清憲、劉榮章。在1973年之大修中,故宮工程隊增添三百人的編制,成為老匠的第二、三代傳人,當中包括現為官式古建築營造技藝承傳人之一李永革。官式營造技藝的傳承方法大都是由老組長在修繕過程中扮演師父的角色,向新工匠口傳身教技藝。

 

雖然明清時期的官式建築修繕工程不斷,但由於近年愈來愈少青年入行從事藍領工作,加上不少元件加工步驟開始機械化,使官式古建築營造技藝難以延續。2010年故宮古建築修繕隊伍解散,修繕工程像市內一般工程以招標外判施工單位,除了嚴重影響修復質素,更令故宮無機會像以前一樣培訓更多出色工匠。2013年北京故宮博物院首期官式古建築營造技藝培訓班開班,向前線技工教授古建築識圖、故宮特點、官式技藝的應用等方面的培訓。由於傳承此類傳統涉及古蹟的實習經驗,難以大量公開傳授,但大眾仍需要了解當中特色與困難,故此媒體宣傳甚為重要,例如中央電視台於2016年播出的《我在故宮修文物》紀錄片就有講解官式古建築營造技藝,大大提升大眾認知與興趣及吸引新人的機會。

 

「官式古建築營造技藝(北京故宮)」於2008年列入第二批國家級非物質文化遺產代表性項目名錄。

The construction of The Forbidden City in Beijing has a history of more than 600 years. Not only was it the imperial palace of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, but is also one of the most important examples of the construction technique of government official architecture. The official style of construction can be traced to the reign of Yongle (永樂) in the Ming Dynasty, when the Forbidden City was first being built. Emperor Yongle recruited the best artisans in the country to build his palace. However, there are no official records from the Ming dynasty that we have found today that documents this architectural process. As such, later artisans who worked on repairing the buildings in The Forbidden City referred to the document “Engineering Practices of the Ministry of Engineering in Qing Dynasty” 《清工部工程做法》, which records the construction techniques of the palace during the reign of Yongzheng (雍正). The document details “The Eight Big Works,” techniques that were commonly used in the construction of imperial and official buildings, including the techniques of tiling, carpentry, scaffolding, stone-work, earthwork, painting, frescoing, and wall-papering.

 

Taking woodwork as an example of one of the important categories of construction skills Engineering Practices records that when “stitching” units of wood together, the step called “Tanxian” (彈線) is of great importance, and therefore should only be done by an experienced master. Marks made on the woodwork should be done according to the standards set forth in Engineering Practices, to ensure accurate communication among artisans. There are many different types of wooden beams, and the precise measurements, functions, and construction steps of each type of wooden beam are laid out.  When shaving the end of a beam, one should shave a mortise that is three-tenths of the cylindrical diameter.  These are just some of the many instructions that the document contains. 

 

Architectural designs also strictly adhere to codes of status. For example, the largest hall within the Forbidden City, Hall of Supreme Harmony, has the most levels of dougong (or interlocking wooden brackets at the top of a column).  The motifs and subject matters of frescoes are also determined according to the status: the dragon and phoenix are the most noble and honored; geometric patterns are secondary; and flowers and plants, and scenery are used in the construction of middle or smaller-sized flower gardens. The platform of a royal building can be five feet high; a platform for a duke, marquis to a third-grade officer is two feet; a platform for the building of a fourth-grade office to a civilian is one foot high. 

 

From 1912 to 1949, the political instability in northern China obstructed the maintenance of the Forbidden City. After the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, the government restarted large-scale repairs of the palace complex, and in 1953 a restoration team for the Palace Museum was founded by artisans who were recruited from across the country, including “Shi Lao,” top ten masters who were respected for their skills: the carpenters Du Bai-tang (杜伯堂), Ma Jin-kao (馬進考), Mu Wen-hua (穆文華), and Zhang Wen-zhong (張文忠); the tilers Zhou Feng-shan (周鳳山) and Zhang Guo-an (張國安); the painters Zhang Liang-qing (張連卿) and He Wen-kui (何文奎); and the masons Liu Qing-xian (劉清憲) and Liu Rong-zhang (劉榮章). In the major renovation efforts that took place in 1973, the established restoration team had expanded to 300 people, who were the disciples of the old masters.  Among the team members was Li Yong-ge (李永革), the current representative inheritor of official architecture construction technique of The Forbidden City. The way of transmission of these sets of skills is still by way of apprenticeship, information being passed down orally and by practical demonstration and experience.

 

Although continually there are repair projects of Qing dynasty official architecture to be done, there are less and less young people who are willing to learn the skill set necessary for restoration, considering it a blue collar occupation, and the apprenticeship period is long and difficult. Moreover, certain steps and components of the construction process are also being mechanized.  In 2010 the renovation team for The Forbidden Palace was dissolved. Repair projects are outsourced to private contractors in similar procedures as normal construction projects.  This negatively affects the quality of materials and techniques used, and the inheritance of traditional skills is also greatly hampered. To remedy this, in 2013 the Palace Museum held training courses for the first time, to teach front-line technicians the architectural plans of old buildings, characteristics of the Forbidden City, and applications of construction techniques.  The media has also given help in promoting this culture, by producing programs that highlight the architecture of the Forbiden City, such as the documentary Masters in the Forbidden City 《我在故宮修文物》, broadcasted on CCTV in 2016. 

 

Since 2008, “Construction Techniques of Official Architecture of the Forbidden City” has been included in the second batch of the National List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of China, nominated by the Palace Museum.

更多相關資料 MORE INFORMATION:

視頻 Video:

“Cultural Kaleidoscope – A Date with the Palace”(文化大觀園 – 與故宮相約), a documentary of cultural heritages in the Forbidden City, including an interview of Li Yong-ge (李永革), the representative inheritor of Official Architecture Construction Technique (The Forbidden City, Beijing), produced and broadcasted by Phoenix Television in 2015.

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