編號: VIII - 187
Inscribed list: National List, Third Batch
Inventory no.: VIII - 187
Nominating unit(s): Zhejiang Province, Shaoxing City, Shangyu District, Hangzhou City, Cixi City
Yue ware is ceramic from one of the most famous kilns in ancient China, located in Zhejiang province. Anciently, Yue ware was renowned for its celadon, which appeared in the Han dynasty, and flourished in the Tang dynasty, and continued to develop until the Song dynasty, after which it gradually went out of fashion. Yue celadon ware is closely related to tea drinking practices of the Tang dynasty. The Classic of Tea (Chajing; 茶經) by Lu Yu (陸羽) praised Yue celadon as being like jade and ice. Many other poets in the Tang dynasty also praised the beauty of Yue celadon in their poetry. Fore many centuries, celadon ware was highly regarded by the Chinese imperial court. Yue celadon greatly influenced the firing techniques of celadon or ceramics in surrounding areas, including Korean celadon and Japanese ceramics.
It is believed that the production of Yue ware started in the Eastern Han period. The decoration was simple and the color was light grey during this period. Ceramics were primarily used as daily ware and as funerary objects. Yue ware continued to develop, and more variety of different decoratiosn appeared in the Three Kingdoms period to the Eastern Jin dynasty. The peak of Yue celadon is considered to be in the Tang dynasty, and Yue celadon in this period were made as cups, bowls or incense burners. In the Tang period a type of Yue celadon called Mi-se Yue (秘色瓷), meaning ‘Secret-colored Yue’, was developed. It was renowned for its smooth and thin glaze of light color, and considered the best of Yue celadon. The fine color and design of Mi-se Yue ware was simple, but elegant. Mi-se wares used as tributes to the royal family. As mentioned in The Classic of Tea by Lu Yu, Yue ware looked like jade and ice while Xing ware were like silver and snow. An octagonal vase discovered at Famen Temple(法門寺) in Shaanxi is one of the masterpieces of Mi-se Yue. Yue ware were also closely related to the practice of tea drinking during Tang dynasty. Celadon was used for tea bowls at that period, and it was believed that the fresh color of celadon complemented the green color of tea, producing a unique aesthetic. After Song dynasty, slowly declined, and the firing techniques gradually disappeared.
The decorations on Yue celadon are usually made by carving and molding. The artisans will create shallow designs on the surface. Sometimes flowers, birds and landscapes may also be painted or carved on the surface of celadon. There are several ancient kilns that have been preserved in Cixi City. About six hundred ancient kilns were also preserved in Shangyu District. According to some historical texts, many kilns were moved to the north during the Song dynasty and this might be the cause of the disappearance of firing techniques of Yue celadon. However, there is some archaeological research proving that there Yue celadon may still have been made after the Southern Song period. This would extend the history of Yue celadon production by several hundred years.
In present day, people are trying to revitalize the tradition and popularity of Yue ware. In 2001, Cixi city established the Cixi City Yue Celadon Research Institution, which focuses on reviving the skills of Yue celadon production. After numbers of years, they had grasped the main idea of making celadon and start to produce. Shangyu District is also actively developing the culture of celadon so as to transmit the traditional art.
In 2011, the celadon ceramic art of Yue kiln was included on the third batch of the National List of Intangible Heritage of China.
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影片: 化土為玉 感受“非遗”越窑青瓷烧制技藝