所屬名錄: 第三批國家級名錄

編號: VIII - 187

申報地區或單位: 淅江省紹興市上虞區、杭州市、慈溪市

Inscribed list: National List, Third Batch

Inventory no.: VIII - 187

Nominating unit(s): Zhejiang Province, Shaoxing City, Shangyu District, Hangzhou City, Cixi City

越窯是中國古代有名的古窯,產地主要在今日浙江省一帶。越窯是著名的古代青瓷發源地。越窯青瓷自漢代已有製造,到唐時最盛,一直發展至宋代才漸漸式微,有著近千年的燒制史。越窯青瓷與唐時飲茶風尚息息相關。《茶經》一事中曾讚美越窯青瓷「類玉似冰」,唐代不少詩人亦咏詩頌讚越窯青瓷的美。晚唐時越窯青瓷更被稱為「秘色瓷」。越窯青瓷亦影響到歷史中不少南方瓷窯甚至是韓國及日本的製瓷工藝。

 

在東漢時候,越窯開始生產瓷器。此時期的產品紋飾較為簡單,胎色為淡灰色,主要分為日用品及冥器兩種用途。三國至東晉時期,越窯的瓷業持續發展,紋飾開始出現更多款式。直到進入唐代有發展得最為鼎盛的「秘色瓷」。這段時期的越窯青瓷從器物的種類、造型設計、紋飾藝術及燒製技術都達到頂峰。秘色瓷以其純淨的青色釉色著稱,被認為是最優質的越窑青瓷。其中唐代越窯青瓷佳品包括壺、鉢,碗、杯、燈盞及熏爐等。「秘色瓷」均稱的釉色及細緻造型,讓它每件瓷器都簡潔典雅,其時陸羽的《茶經》中更以類玉似冰來讚美秘色瓷。在陜西法門寺出土的八棱秘色瓷淨水瓶便是秘色瓷中的代表作。而越窯青瓷在唐代與其時飲茶風尚關係密切,常被用作為茶具。青瓷的青翠色彩與茶的綠相互襯托,造出獨特美感。到宋代以後越窯才逐漸衰落。

 

越窯青瓷常見的裝飾多以刻花及劃花為主,通常以利落的綫條在胎上勾畫出不同式樣的紋飾,花卉、獸及山水也曾畫於青瓷之上。今日的慈溪市保存了十多個來自漢代至宋代不同時期的越窯遺址。而上虞區一帶更有超過六百多處的古窯址。據文獻記載,因宋代出現窯場大規模的北遷,導致越窯青瓷的製作技術失傳。不過近來通過考古,發現南宋時期以後或有人繼續製作越窯青瓷,使青瓷的燒造歷史可能可再延續多數百年。

 

不論如何,越窯的青瓷燒製技藝自宋代以後一直衰落。近年為了恢復這項傳統工藝,慈溪市在2001年成立了慈溪市越窑青瓷研究所,著手進行恢復越窑青瓷製作技藝的研究項目。經過數年時間,他們逐漸掌握這項傳統工藝的要領,並仿造成不同作品。不只是慈溪市,上虞區亦積極發展青瓷文化,傳承越窑青瓷燒製技藝。

 

在2011年越窯青瓷燒製技藝被列入第三批國家級非物質文化遺產名錄。

Yue ware is ceramic from one of the most famous kilns in ancient China, located in Zhejiang province. Anciently, Yue ware was renowned for its celadon, which appeared in the Han dynasty, and flourished in the Tang dynasty, and continued to develop until the Song dynasty, after which it gradually went out of fashion. Yue celadon ware is closely related to tea drinking practices of the Tang dynasty. The Classic of Tea (Chajing; 茶經) by Lu Yu (陸羽) praised Yue celadon as being like jade and ice. Many other poets in the Tang dynasty also praised the beauty of Yue celadon in their poetry. Fore many centuries, celadon ware was highly regarded by the Chinese imperial court. Yue celadon greatly influenced the firing techniques of celadon or ceramics in surrounding areas, including Korean celadon and Japanese ceramics.

 

It is believed that the production of Yue ware started in the Eastern Han period. The decoration was simple and the color was light grey during this period. Ceramics were primarily used as daily ware and as funerary objects.  Yue ware continued to develop, and more variety of different decoratiosn appeared in the Three Kingdoms period to the Eastern Jin dynasty.  The peak of Yue celadon is considered to be in the Tang dynasty, and Yue celadon in this period were made as cups, bowls or incense burners. In the Tang period a type of Yue celadon called Mi-se Yue (秘色瓷), meaning ‘Secret-colored Yue’, was developed. It was renowned for its smooth and thin glaze of light color, and considered the best of Yue celadon. The fine color and design of Mi-se Yue ware was simple, but elegant.  Mi-se wares used as tributes to the royal family. As mentioned in The Classic of Tea by Lu Yu, Yue ware looked like jade and ice while Xing ware were like silver and snow. An octagonal vase discovered at Famen Temple(法門寺) in Shaanxi is one of the masterpieces of Mi-se Yue. Yue ware were also closely related to the practice of tea drinking during Tang dynasty. Celadon was used for tea bowls at that period, and it was believed that the fresh color of celadon complemented the green color of tea, producing a unique aesthetic. After Song dynasty, slowly declined, and the firing techniques gradually disappeared.

 

The decorations on Yue celadon are usually made by carving and molding. The artisans will create shallow designs on the surface. Sometimes flowers, birds and landscapes may also be painted or carved on the surface of celadon. There are several ancient kilns that have been preserved in Cixi City.  About six hundred ancient kilns were also preserved in Shangyu District. According to some historical texts, many kilns were moved to the north during the Song dynasty and this might be the cause of the disappearance of firing techniques of Yue celadon. However, there is some archaeological research proving that there Yue celadon may still have been made after the Southern Song period.  This would extend the history of Yue celadon production by several hundred years.

       

In present day, people are trying to revitalize the tradition and popularity of Yue ware.  In 2001, Cixi city established the Cixi City Yue Celadon Research Institution, which focuses on reviving the skills of Yue celadon production. After numbers of years, they had grasped the main idea of making celadon and start to produce. Shangyu District is also actively developing the culture of celadon so as to transmit the traditional art. 

 

In 2011, the celadon ceramic art of Yue kiln was included on the third batch of the National List of Intangible Heritage of China.

更多相關資料 MORE INFORMATION:

視頻 Video:

影片: 化土為玉 感受“非遗”越窑青瓷烧制技藝

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