望果節  Wangguo Festival (Ongkor Festival)
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所屬名錄: 第四批國家級名錄

編號: X - 145

申報地區或單位: 西藏自治區

Inscribed list: National List, Forth Batch

Inventory no.: X - 145

Nominating unit(s): Tibet Autonomous Region

望果節是藏族農民慶祝豐收的節日。「望果」為藏語的譯音,「望」解作「田園」、「土地」,「果」則有「轉圈」之意,「望果」意指「在田園巡遊」。傳說望果節已有近一千五百年歷史,主要在西藏自治區流行。望果節一般在七、八月間,具體日期隨各地季節變化而定,一般在收割前的前兩三天開始舉行。

 

關於望果節的傳說可追溯至公元五世紀末,當時的藏王向甕仲本教佛祖請求,希望祂能夠確保風調雨順、糧食豐收。佛祖回應藏王,讓農民拿著香爐、麥穗等繞田地轉圈並高聲頌唱,以祈求豐收,這便是「望果」的意思。再經過幾個世紀,因格魯派創立,望果活動自此增添了不少宗教色彩,往後望果活動不僅是繞田遊行,更加入了慶典的活動,使望果活動變為藏族地區,特別是農業為主一帶的重要節日之一。而望果在早期被認為是農民在收割農作物前做的一種活動。後來隨著時代發展,這項活動逐漸加入更多宗教色彩,內容亦更豐富而列入藏族農區的正式節日「望果節」。

 

現代的望果節,一般定在秋收前擇日舉行。每個村落的農民會盛裝出席,高舉佛像、背著經書、手持五彩‘打達’(綁著五色布條的木條),走到所有田地轉圈及高唱歌謠,以感謝上天為農民帶來風調雨順豐收的一年。繞田地轉圈是望果節最重要的一環,過後村民會到廣場上舉行盛大的文娛體育活動,包括藏戲、歌舞、跑馬和射箭等。

 

 望果節在2014年被列入為第四批國家級非物質文化遺產名錄。

 

Wangguo Festival (Ongkor Festival) is a Tibetan traditional festival to celebrate successful harvests. Wangguo festivals are believed to have a history of more than one thousand and five hundred years. The festival is normally held in July or August, for one to three days. Farmers will walk around the farmlands to wish for bumper harvests for the following year.

 

The Wangguo festival is said to have originated in the late fifth century. The king of the Tibetan people went to the leader of the Bon religion to request for his help in ensuring a good harvest for the year. The leader told the king that he should order the farmers to circle the farmlands with incense burners in their hands, chanting and praying to appeal for a good harvest. This activity of circling the fields is what gave the festival its name of “Ongkor,” which means to circle around the farmland.  This activity was practiced before the harvest, but was not a formal festival until the Gelugpa school of Tibetan Buddhism became popular in Tibet in the later centuries.  The “Ongkor” activity developed into a more formal festival colored with the religious flavor of the Gelugpa school.  

 

The Wangguo festival today is held for one to three days before the harvest. Each region that practices the festival may not hold it on the same day, and thus the whole of Tibet in the months of July and August will see the continuous welcome of the festivities. Every farmer in the village will dress up in their best attire, hold high a statue of Buddha, carry scriptures on their backs, and hold in their hands “dada” (sticks wrapped with strips of five-colored material). The farmers will circle the fields and sing songs giving thanks for the plentiful harvests.  Circling the fields is the most important part of the festival.  After that, farmers will return to their village and have entertainment such as horse racing, Traditional Tibetan opera performances, wrestling, and archery.  After the festivities are over, the farmers will start the busy work of harvesting and sowing. 

 

In 2014, Wangguo festival was included on the forth batch of the National List of Intangible Heritage of China.

視頻 Video(s):

西藏:望果節裏「望」豐收

Tibetans celebrate harvest festival