怒族仙女節 Fairy Festival of the Nu Nationality

所屬名錄: 第一批國家級名錄

編號: X-24

申報地區或單位: 雲南省貢山獨龍族怒族自治縣

Inscribed list: National List, First Batch

Inventory no.: X-24

Nominating unit(s): Yunnan Province, Gongshan Dulong and Nu Autonomous County

怒族會在每年農曆三月十五日會慶祝仙女節,又名「鮮花節」。此節慶活動歴時三日。

仙女節來源有多種説法。一說是它源於原始崇拜,或對母權社會的尊崇。仙女節的相關傳説是關於阿茸姑娘,一位年輕貌美的少女。她不但是跨越怒江的篾溜索之發明者,還把貢山劈開,讓泉水流進該區。之後,該地的綠野和岩石變得肥沃,而她的名字亦為怒江兩岸的人熟知。

人們對充滿智慧及美麗的阿茸姑娘「仙女」。

但是,她的美色吸引了心腸歹毒的頭人,他欲把她佔有。當她拒絕其提親請求並躲入貢山的山洞時,頭人在失望及盛怒之下在農曆三月十五日放火燒山,殺害阿茸,她後來亦化成一尊石像。為了紀念聰明美麗的阿茸的功績,怒族會在其忌日祭拜她,成為仙女節的根源。

仙女族的主要活動為祭祀儀式。穿上傳統服飾後,他們會帶著多束鮮花、祭品及野餐用的食物到石像阿茸所在的山洞。由於怒族人受藏傳佛教影響,山上亦有唐卡及彩旗裝飾。同時,那𥚃亦放置一個用鮮花、旗織、松枝及插著粟米的竹子裝飾的燒香壇,鮮花為阿茸而設,松枝與粟米分別象徵了吉祥如意和五谷豐收。在祭台上,主持會誦讀經文,參加者會叩頭。同時,樂師亦會演奏傳統樂器。

人們在鼓鳴時環繞燒香壇及祭壇周邊一圈,他們在竹枝上獻上鮮花。傳說裡阿茸所在的山洞裡的鍾乳石會流出泉水,青年女子則會把泉水收集,繼而把它們分享給族人們。主要的祭祀儀式完結後,人們會與家人們野餐,分享帶来的食物及酒。年輕的村民會盛裝出席射箭比賽。晚上,他們會在溝火旁唱歌跳舞,同時嘗試尋找未來對象。

隨著時代變遷,重點亦從祭祀儀式轉移至歌舞體育的部份。仙女節展現原始對自然的崇拜及藏傳佛教之影響,這對怒族文化傳承有重大影響。

 

The Nu nationality (怒族) annually celebrate the Fairy Festival, also known as the “Flower festival” on the fifteenth day of the Third Lunar month. The festival lasts for three days.

 

There are various explanations of the origins of the Fairy Festival. It might have started as a form of worship for their original deities, or as customs respecting the matriarchal nature of its society. The most popular explanation of its origins is rooted in the legend of Ah Rong (阿茸), an industrious young maiden who invented the zipline for crossing the Nujiang river (怒江), as well as splitting Gongshan (貢山) mountain, in order to channel freshwater to irrigate the fields. She captured the attention of Tou Ren (頭人), who desired to marry her. She refused, and fled to the caves. In his rage, Tou Ren set fire to the caves, killing Ah Rong. It is also said that Ah Rong turned into a stone statue inside the caves. The Nu people commemorate her during the Fairy Festival.

 

During the festival, people will don their traditional clothes, and carry azalea flowers and other types of oblations to the caves where the statue of Ah Rong is located. There is an influence of Tibetan Buddhism on the Nu people, and thus there are thangkas and colorful Buddhist prayer flags placed at the worship sites too. The altars are made on the natural rocks inside the cave, with incense offerings, and decorated with flowers, pine branches, and bamboo sticks tied with corn. The flowers are for Ah Rong, while pine branches and corn symbolize everlasting luck and harvest respectively. At the altar, religious officials will chant prayers as worshippers bow. Meanwhile, musicians play traditional instruments at the scene. People will circle around the altar as the musicians beat the drums, and offer and place flowers.

 

Legend has it that the stalactites in the caves release sacred water. Water dripping from the stalactites will be collected and shared to the participants. After the main rituals, people partake of food and win with their family members in a picnic, and there will be music and dance performances. Young villagers will also participate in an archery competition. Later at night, they will sing and dance around the bonfire, while searching for their potential love.

 

As time goes on, the focus on deity worshipping at the festival has been shifted to music and sports. The Fairy Festival is an illustration of the syncretic nature of the Nu’s people religion, who worship nature, but are also adherents of Tibetan Buddhism.  

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