祭孔大典
The Grand Ceremony of Worship of Confucius

所屬名錄: 第一批國家級名錄

編號: X-35

申報地區或單位: 山東省曲阜市

Inscribed list: National List, First Batch

Inventory no.: X-35

Nominating unit(s): Shandong Province, Qufu City

祭孔大典,顧名思義,是為了祭拜孔子而生的隆重祀典。孔子是儒家思想的創始者,長久而來被尊稱為「萬世師表」,他的思想學說多年來一直影響中國無數學子,到了現代,儒家學說更是漸漸傳播至中國及亞洲以外的地區,讓更多人能有機會認識和學習。為了表達對這位聖人的尊崇與懷念,從古代開始人們便會舉行祭孔大典。起初祭孔是每年秋季一次,後增至春秋各一次。自2004年起,每年在大約九月至十月份時段,在山東省曲阜市,亦是孔子故居(今為孔廟)的所在地,便會舉行祭孔大典,祭祀孔子。

 

祭孔的歷史源遠流長,最早可追朔至春秋時魯哀公在孔子病逝後兩年,在曲阜孔子的故居進行祭祀,以表達對孔子的尊敬之意。後來到漢代,漢高祖在一次經過曲阜之時,便以太牢重禮祭祀孔廟,即原來孔子故居。自此開啟了歷代帝皇祭孔的先河。漢武帝之時,更因為「罷黜百家,獨尊儒術」,促使各地開始興建孔廟,孔廟成為祭孔的主要場地。歷代皇帝亦分別對孔子加封不同名號,到明、清以後的祭孔典禮規模更是愈來愈大,祭典儀式、所用禮器、舞曲樂章等都由皇帝親自欽定,皇帝亦曾親自主祭,是重要的禮儀典禮。像明代時祭孔大典已達帝王規格,歷史上亦稱為「國之大典」。

 

祭孔原本只允許孔氏直系子孫參加,即使後來祭孔變為國家重要的禮儀大典後,家祭依舊進行,而國家進行的即多由皇帝自身親自主祭或是皇帝任命特別人員前往孔廟進行。

 

整個祭孔大典最重要的儀式是「三獻禮」,但在此之前主祭人要整理好衣冠、洗淨手後再到香案前上香作揖。「三獻禮」分為「初獻」、「亞獻」和「終獻」。「初獻」是指帛爵,即絲綢與酒杯,由正獻官將帛爵供至香案後,而主祭人則宣讀祭文,及後全體人員對孔子像五鞠躬,並誦《孔子贊》。其後再有亞獻官與終獻官把亞獻(即香)及終獻(即酒)供奉於案上。

 

現在的曲阜祭孔大典主要分為明故城開城儀式、孔廟開廟儀式、現代公祭和傳統祭祀四部分。而祭孔大典的的祭祀樂舞主要分為四種形式:樂、歌、舞、禮。其中樂、歌、舞都是圍繞禮而進行。通過音樂與舞蹈,表現儒家思想,將藝術與政治思想結合,生動闡釋「禮」、「仁」等觀念。曲阜祭孔大典中用到的音樂、舞蹈、服裝、道具,均是基於原有的樂譜與文獻圖記載重新編訂及設計,主要為了重現明代祭孔大典的盛況。在祭孔大典期間,會使用佾舞,即古代中國使用的節祭祀舞蹈。佾的意思為古代樂舞的行列。六佾舞是諸候用的規格,而八佾舞則為天子所用的最高規格。起初祭孔時用的是六佾舞,後來各代皇帝愈發推崇儒學,使孔子地位亦隨之提高,開始使用與天子同等規格的八佾舞。

 

在2006年,曲阜祭孔大典被列入為第一批國家級非物質文化遺產名錄。現時每年一般由9月26日到10月10日期間舉行盛大的祭孔大典。在2011年,李文廣先生被評為祭孔大典省級非物質文化遺產項目代表性傳承人。

 

The Grand Ceremony of Worship of Confucius is a ceremony to worship Confucius, who was one of the most important teachers, politicians and philosophers of Chinese history. Confucius lived in the Spring and Autumn period, and his philosophy, Confucianism, has influenced China since anciently and is considered one of the most important philosophies in China. The ceremony is held to commemorate the legacy of Confucius, and to pay him respect. Originally, the ceremony was only held once a year. Over time, the ceremony came to be held twice a year in spring and autumn. The Grand Ceremony of Worship of Confucius was banned for several decades during the twentieth century because of the Cultural Revolution. During that period, political propaganda was launched against Confucianism, denouncing the tenets of the philosophy as inferior.  After several decades, these campaigns no longer exist, and in 2004 the Grand Ceremony of Worship of Confucius was allowed to be held officially in Shandong Qufu City again.

 

The first Grand Ceremony of Worship of Confucius was believed to be held two years later after the death of Confucius by Marquis Aigong of Lu. The ceremony was held at the former residence of Confucius. Emperor Gaozu of Han (Han Gaozu,漢高祖) also prepared a ceremony to show respect to Confucius when he passed by Shandong, the birthplace of Confucius. Since then, almost every Han emperor held the ceremony to worship Confucius. During the period ruled by Emperor Wu of Han, Confucianism was officially announced as the national philosophy. Therefore, people started to build up temples of Confucius in different places and the ceremony of worshiping Confucius also became more popular. Emperors from different dynasties increase the honors given to Confucius, thereby also increasing the scale of the ceremony. For example, the Grand Ceremony was on par with a ceremony for an emperor during Ming and Qing dynasty. It was described as the Grand Ceremony of A Country (Guo zhi dadian國之大典).

 

Originally, the ceremony was only held by Confucius’ descendants. In later periods, the descendants of Confucius still held the ceremony every year but there also came to be another ‘official’ ceremony held at the same time which was led by officers or the emperor.

 

The ‘San Xian Li’ (third presentation, 三獻禮) is one of the most important rituals during the ceremony. Before the ritual, the chief person in charge of the sacrifice needs to clean his clothes, wash his hands and take a bow in front of the incense table. The ‘San Xian Li’ including Chu Xian Li (first presentation), Ya Xian Li (second presentation) and Zhong Xian Li (final presentation). The others involved will present silk cloth, wine ware and wine on the incense table as to present to the ancestor. At the same time, the chief officiator will recite the text ‘Kongzi Zan’.

 

Today, the Grand Ceremony of Worship of Confucius in Qufu city is basically divided into four parts: Ceremony of the opening of old Ming city (Ming Gucheng Kaicheng Yishi, 明古城開城儀式), Ceremony of the opening of Temple of Confucius (Kongmiao Kaimiao Yishi, 孔廟開廟儀式), modern official ceremony (Xiandai gongji, 現代公祭) and traditional sacrificial ritual. Music and dance are also significant parts of the ceremony. By playing ritual music, singing ritual songs and dancing, the teachings of Confucianism like the concept of Ren (仁) and Li (禮) are presented. All the music, dance, clothing and items used in the ceremony are designed based on the records on ancient texts. Yi dance (八佾舞) is an ancient dance that is performed to show respect to people of different social positions. Yi (佾) means “row.” The number of dancers performing depends on how the person is honored. Eight rows (Ba Yi, 八佾) are used for an emperor while six rows are for a duke. In the beginning, people used to perform a Liu Yi dance (Six row dance, 六佾舞) in the Grand Ceremony of Worship of Confucius but later as different emperors from different dynasties had given more honor to Confucius, Ba Yi Dance (Eight row dance, 八佾舞) is performed in the ceremony.

 

In 2006, the Grand Ceremony of Worship of Confucius was included on the first batch of the National List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of China. The ceremony is held on around 26th of September to 10th of October every year. In 2011, Mr Li Wenguang was announced as the representative inheritor of the Grand Ceremony of Worship of Confucius.

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The Grand Ceremony of  Worship of Confucius in 2016

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s-6E0jvgjrU