媽祖祭典
Goddess Mazu Ceremonies
更多相關資料 MORE INFOMATION

所屬名錄: 第一批國家級名錄

編號: X-36

申報地區或單位: 福建省莆田市; 中華媽祖文化交流協會 

Inscribed list: National List, First Batch

Inventory no.: X-36

Nominating unit(s): Fujian Province, Putian City, Chinese Mazu Cultural Exchange Association

媽祖祭典在每年農曆三月二十三日,海神媽祖生辰之日舉行。與祭孔大典及黃帝陵祭典同為「中華三大祭典」。

祭典起源於宋朝,已有1000年的歴史。祭典儀式中,鼓鳴象徵儀式開始,所有祭典人員及舞者就位。迎神上香後,會誦讀祝文。在多次跪拜磕首及奏樂後,會進行最後的儀式,並燒祝文及帛。

媽祖傳說在古代文獻及口傳文學均有記載。兩者指出媽祖出生於北宋時期,原名為默娘,皆因她出生後沒有哭鬧,表現沉默。她的家鄉在湄洲島,它靠近福建省莆田市。作為林家一員,媽祖姓林。南宋及明代資料描述她為一位聰慧的巫女,有預知及通天能力。

默娘成仙過程有多種解説。坊間認為默娘為了拯救自己被困大海的父親而犧牲自己而成仙;有些版本則表示默娘在靜觀昇天後成仙,亦有版本指她在攀上山峰後踏上雲朵,繼而成為媽祖。無論如何,島民及村民懷念她的事蹟而拜祭她,成為媽祖信仰的開端。

除了民間信仰,媽祖亦受宋至明朝歴代皇帝尊敬。她的影響亦由中國東南擴大至世界各地,有媽祖廟的地方包括香港、台灣、加拿大及美國。

2009年,媽祖信仰被列入聯合國教科文組織世界非物質文化遺產。

 

The Goddess Mazu ceremonies are held every year on the twenty-third day of the Third month in the lunar calendar – a day which is believed to be the birth date of Mazu, a goddess of the sea. Alongside the ceremonies of Confucius and Huangdiling memorial ceremony, the three ceremonies are known as “The Three Ceremonies of China”.

 

Originating from the Song Dynasty, the Goddess Mazu Ceremonies has 1000 years of history. During the main ritual ceremony in Meizhou Island, drums and percussions signal the beginning of the ceremony, and the performers, religious officials will then proceed to their positions. After they welcome the goddess and grant her the offerings, speeches of blessings are read and recited. The worshippers will then bow and pay their respects to Mazu, which will be followed by music performances. After this, a final bow is performed, then the written copy of the blessing speech and white silk for sacrifice are burnt in the final stage of the ceremony.

 

The legend of Mazu is recorded in both ancient documents and oral folklore. Both folklore and historical records agree that Mazu was a maiden born in the Northern Song era, originally named Mo Niang (默娘) because of the fact that she remained silent without crying after her birth. Her home was on Meizhou Island, an island close to Putian City, Fujian. The surname of Mazu was Lin, as she was a member of the Lin Family. Several sources from Southern Song and Ming Dynasty cited that Lin Mo Niang was an intelligent sorceress, who had the power to predict and possess celestial knowledge.

 

There are various speculations on how she became a goddess. Popular versions state that she sacrificed herself while attempting to rescue her father, who was stranded in the ocean; other versions include Mo Niang falling into eternal sleep during meditation, or stepping onto the clouds upon a hill before being declared as Mazu – the goddess of the seas. No matter the way she became a goddess, the islands and villagers commemorated and worshiped her, thus marking the beginning of the Mazu worshipping.

 

Apart from folk worshipping, Mazu was also well regarded by the rulers of various dynasties from the Song to Qing Dynasty, and her influence has extended from the southeastern side of China to the rest of the world, including Hong Kong, Taiwan, Canada and the United States, where Mazu Temples have been constructed.

In 2009, Mazu Worshipping was inscribed in the UNESCO list of Intangible Culture Heritage.

視頻 Video:

Video 1 (above):

UNESCO video on Mazu belief and customs

Video 2:

CCTV news on Mazu Ceremonies

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N1yLA5GS33M

 

Video 3:

CGTV show, "Travelogue" episode on Mazu worship. 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mhL7huFTesg

Site maintained by Chinese Cultural Studies Center Limited

  • Untitled-5
  • Facebook - Grey Circle
  • YouTube - Grey Circle